CareerExplorer’s step-by-step guide on how to become a surgeon.

Step 1

Is becoming a surgeon right for me?

The first step to choosing a career is to make sure you are actually willing to commit to pursuing the career. You don’t want to waste your time doing something you don’t want to do. If you’re new here, you should read about:

What do surgeons do?
Career Satisfaction
Are surgeons happy with their careers?
What are surgeons like?

Still unsure if becoming a surgeon is the right career path? to find out if this career is right for you. Perhaps you are well-suited to become a surgeon or another similar career!

Described by our users as being “shockingly accurate”, you might discover careers you haven’t thought of before.

Step 2

High School


Take advanced science classes in anatomy, biology, chemistry, physiology, and physics.

Take math classes to facilitate the calculation of medication dosages and the reading of graphs.

Study Latin to help you understand unfamiliar medical terms that often have Latin roots.

Study a foreign language to increase your capacity to communicate with the segment of the population that does not speak English.

Research which colleges offer the best surgery programs.

Interview a practising surgeon. Ask simple, but pointed, questions such as:

• What got you interested in surgery?
• Can you tell me about an average day at your job, from beginning to end?
• What do you like about your job? What do you dislike?
• What is the most challenging part of being a surgeon?
• What advice would you give to someone who wants to become a surgeon?
• If you could start over, would you still choose to be a surgeon? Why?

Step 3

Bachelor’s Degree

While there is not a specific degree required for undergraduate study, aspiring surgeons tend to concentrate their coursework in advanced biological sciences to meet admission requirements for medical school.

Students must graduate from an accredited bachelor's degree program with pre-med courses, such as microbiology, biochemistry, and human anatomy. Also recommended are classes in English, advanced mathematics, and statistics. Most medical schools require a grade point average of at least 3.5 and may choose only those candidates who rank at the top of their graduating class.

During undergraduate study, it is also important for students to gain experience that will set them apart from other medical school applicants and prepare them for their chosen career. This experience may include volunteering at a hospital, performing community service, and research work.

Especially valuable are job shadowing programs, which allow students to follow plastic surgeons and other doctors throughout a workday. All of these activities demonstrate work ethic and dedication to the medical field. Whenever possible, these experiences should be documented on letters of recommendation, which can be submitted with medical school applications.

Step 4

Medical College Admissions Test

Prospective surgeons must sit for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM).

Through a set of multiple-choice questions, this standardized exam allows medical schools to evaluate a candidate’s training and skill set. Many schools share their incoming student MCAT score average on their website to inform undergraduates of how well they need to score to compete with other applicants. Most students take the MCAT at least a year before they wish to begin medical school.

To achieve their highest possible MCAT score, students are encouraged to take advantage of assistance available to them. This includes study materials, pre-tests, practice tests, and online and in-person tutoring. These resources are designed to ensure that students attain the best possible score, which will open doors to medical schools.

Step 5

Medical School & National Licensing

Medical school is a very challenging four years of study that is divided into two parts.

The first part, comprising the first two years of the schooling, is focused on course and lab work that prepares students intellectually for patient interaction. This training is in the biological and natural sciences, physiology, chemistry, medical ethics, and the art and practice of medicine.

To test their grasp of this portion of training, in the second year of medical school students pursuing an MD must take and pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) – Step 1. Those pursuing a DO must take and pass the United States Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX-USA) – Level 1. A passing score on the USMLE or COMLEX-USA indicates that students are ready to begin supervised patient visits and gain clinical experience.

The second part of medical school, the second two years, is called Rotations. During this time, students have the opportunity to experience a variety of medical specialties and a variety of medical settings under the supervision of experienced physicians.

Rotations further students’ understanding of patient care, situations, scenarios, and the teams that come together to help those that are sick. As they complete rotations, students tend to find out that they gravitate towards certain specialties or environments that fit their particular interests and skill sets. It is important that this time informs their decision of specialty or subspecialty, so that they find complete satisfaction as a physician.

After part two of medical school, students take the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) – Step 2 or the United States Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX-USA) – Level 2. The objective of these exams is to test whether or not students have developed the clinical knowledge and skills that they will need to transition into unsupervised medical practice.

Step 6


After completing medical school, postgraduates begin a five- to eight- year surgical residency accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. During this time, surgical residents attend lectures, participate in simulation labs, and conduct patient rounds and case studies with licensed surgeons.

Residents rotate through a variety of clinical settings including general and vascular surgery, surgical specialties, anesthesia, pediatric surgery, and the intensive care unit (ICU). They perform surgeries, starting as first assistant and assuming increasing independence as their skills improve. In addition, residents determine individual pre- and post- surgery care plans for patients.

Step 7

Extended Residency / Fellowship (optional)

A ‘fellow’ is a physician who elects to complete further training or a ‘fellowship’ in a subspecialty, after or near the end of residency. The primary surgery subspecialties are:

• Thoracic surgery
• Obstetrics and gynecology
• Cardiovascular surgery
• Neurological surgery
• Orthopaedic surgery
• Colon and rectal surgery
• Pediatric surgery
• Reconstructive surgery

Step 8

State Licensing

All physicians in the U.S. need to be state licensed. Licensing requirements may vary from state to state. Generally, candidates must have earned an undergraduate degree, graduated from medical school, completed a residency, and passed all necessary examinations. Often, the examination component is satisfied by passing the USMLE or the COMLEX-USA exam. States may further require periodic license renewal and mandate continuing education.

Step 9

Board Certification & Continuing Education

Board certification is offered by the American Board of Surgery (ABS). Though not mandatory, passing Board examinations and earning ABS credentials establishes a surgeon’s commitment to excellence in the field and increases credibility and marketability in the medical community.